Ricardo Migueláñez. @rmiguelanez
The Ministry of Agriculture has published a Territorial Dossier comparing the macroeconomic weight of Spain within the European Union with regard to agricultural, fishing, food, employment, and foreign trade in food and beverage indicators.
Spain, which has a population of almost 46.45 million people, accounts for 9.2% of the total EU-28 population, which exceeds 506.3 million. Its GDP per capita is 92.1% of the EU average, i.e. 26,700 euros per person per year, compared with 29,000 euros in the EU. It has the fifth-highest GDP, following Germany, the UK, France and Italy, representing 7.5% of the EU-28 total.
The primary sector (Agriculture, Livestock, Forestry, Fishing and Aquaculture) accounts for 2.5% of Spain's total GDP, compared with an average of 1.2% for the EU-15 and 1.3% for the EU-28. However, the sector's Gross Value Added (GVA), which amounted to 28.090 billion euros in 2016, accounted for 14.2% of the EU's GVA, which totaled 197.529 billion euros. The primary sector's GVA is calculated by taking the amount of goods and services that have been produced, less the cost of all inputs and raw materials that are directly attributable to that production.
In the last year, the value of Primary Production in Spain amounted to 46,807.2 million euros, i.e. 11.7% of the EU-28 total (400,723.1 million), ranking Spain fourth in the EU, trailing France, Italy and Germany.
In the Agricultural branch, the current value of Vegetable Production at basic prices was 28,752.4 million euros, 13.9% of the EU total (207,042.3 million euros), while Animal Production amounted to 16,377.1 million euros, or 10.3% of the EU-28 (158,381.5 million euros), accounting for 12.5% of the value of animal production (12,306.7 million of the EU total of 98,539.2 million) and 6.9% of the value of animal products (4,070.4 million euros of the EU total of 59,842.3 million).
As for intermediate consumption (consumables, inputs of products and services), Spain also ranks fourth in the EU, while France ranks number one. Spain's spending in 2016 amounted to 21,310.4 million euros, 8.8% of the EU-28 total, which was 281,158.4 million euros. Spending on the following stands out in particular: animal feed, which accounted for 12.2% of the EU total (10,861.5 million euros, compared with 89,306.2 million euros in the EU); fertilizers and soil amendments (9.9% of the EU total, with 1,726.4 million euros, compared with 17,468.7 million euros in the EU); and veterinary services (9.3% of the EU total, with 618.5 million euros, compared with 6,667.7 million euros in the EU).
Spain's agricultural income totaled 25,687.7 million euros, 17.6% of the EU's agricultural income (145,997.9 million euros), according to official numbers from Eurostat, the EU's statistical office, which ranks Spain number one in the EU (surprising, but true).
In view of recent data on agricultural holdings, Spain's are average in size but smaller than those in the EU-15. Spain has 23.3 million hectares of utilized agricultural area (UAA), representing 18.7% of the EU-15 total (124.57 million) and 13.3% of the EU-28 (174.6 million).
The average UAA per holding in Spain is 24.1 hectares, compared with an average UAA of 28.1 hectares in the EU-15 and more than 16.1 hectares per holding in the EU-28.According to the most recent data, from 2013, Spain had 965,000 holdings, i.e. 21.7% of the EU-15 total (almost 4.4 million) and 8.9% of the EU-28 (10.84 million), with 813,600 AWU (Annual Work Units, equivalent to the work of one person, full time, for one year), which accounts for 17.7% of the EU-15 total (4.6 million) and 8.6% of the EU-28 total (almost 9.51 million), with an average of 0.9 AWU per holding.
Spain ranks fourth in the EU-28 in the number of holdings of less than 5 hectares, with 485,850 (6.93% of the EU-28 total), trailing Romania, Italy and Greece, while it ranks second in large-sized holdings (more than 50 hectares), behind France, with 101,780 holdings, i.e. 14.03% of the EU total.
Crops such as citrus fruits (295,000 hectares), vineyards for wine (919,000 hectares) and olive groves (2.515 million hectares) position Spain as a leader in the EU, and it ranks fourth in terms of area dedicated to grains, with almost 6.23 million hectares in 2016, i.e. 10.89% of the EU-28 total (10.84 million), trailing France, Poland and Germany.
According to livestock censuses, Spain is a leader in pork, with 29.2 million pigs, i.e. 19.86% of the EU-28 total of 147.2 million; followed by sheep, with 16 million, 22.2% of the EU-28 total of 72 million (ranking second, after the UK); and goats, with 3.1 million of the EU-28 total of 10.4 million, or 25.06% (trailing Greece). Spain ranks fifth in terms of cows in the EU-28, with 6.3 million (7.02% of the EU-28 total).
In the last year, Spain produced 8.1% of all grains (including seeds and rice), amounting to around 24.23 million tons, compared with 300.26 million in the EU-28, making it the fourth-largest producer in the EU. The durum wheat harvest accounted for 11.1% of the EU total, with 1.03 million tons, compared with 9.26 million in the EU, ranking Spain third in the region.
Spain ranked eighth in the EU in terms of sugar beet production, with almost 3.15 million tons, i.e. 4.4% of the EU total, which amounted to 110.97 million.
Spain was the leader in olive production in the EU, with around 7.34 million tons (2015 data), i.e. 58.4% of the EU total, and it produced 78.8% of the EU total in terms of citrus fruit, with 5.97 million tons, and almost 3.63 million tons of oranges (74.5% of the EU total).
Spain comes in second in terms of wine grapes (after Italy), with almost 5.82 million tons (24.5% of the EU-28 total).
With regard to slaughtered animals, Spain ranks second in the EU-28 for pork, with almost 4.06 million pigs (17.5% of the EU total); sheep (16.4% of the EU total with 116,500 tons); and goats (22.2% of the EU total with 9,840 tons). As far as poultry goes, Spanish producers obtained 1.52 million tons, 11.6% of the EU total, and 637,800 tons of cows, 8.2% of the EU-28 total, which amounted to almost 7.8 million.
Last year, Spain was the European leader in terms of tonnage and strengthened its fishing fleet, ranking third in the number of ships. Gross tonnage totaled 337,679 tons, 21.2% of the EU total, with a total engine power of 1,073,821 kilowatts (KW), i.e. 16.2%. Spain has 9,299 vessels, 11.1% of the EU-28 total, which amounts to 83,780.
In terms of fish landed, Spain accounted for 27.7% of the EU total (2015 data), worth 1.954 billion euros, compared with 7.049 billion in the EU, with a total volume of 839,000 tons of fish (17.7% of the EU total), ranking it first in the region.
As for aquaculture, Spain was a leader in production, with 293,510 tons in 2015, i.e. 31% of the EU total (948,150 tons), and also in terms of economic value, with 513 million euros (16.7% of the EU total, which amounted to 3.070 billion). This sector represented 6,813 Annual Work Units in 2016.
Spain ranked fifth in terms of revenue (net sales of products, goods and services minus discounts, VAT and other taxes) and in value added (industrial output minus the inputs used in production) in the food industry. In like-for-like terms (2014), it accounted for 10% of the EU total, with 104.744 billion euros, and 9.6% of the total, with 19.661 billion euros, respectively.
The following sectors stood out in terms of turnover: wine, with 20.8% of the total and 6.188 billion; oil and fat, with 22.7% and 12.008 billion; processed fish, with 17.8% and 4.607 billion; meat, with 10.5% of the EU total and 22.538 billion, and animal feed, with 12.3% and 9.656 billion euros.
Spain's food sector revenues accounted for 23% of the industry total (455.945 billion euros), and 15% of the EU-28 total.
Spain ranks fourth in the EU-28 in terms of primary sector jobs, trailing Romania, Poland and Italy, with 774,600. Of those, around 462,000 (59.6%) were held by people between 25 and 49 years old; 256,700 (33.1%) were between 50 and 64 years old; 42,900 (5.5%) were between 15 and 24 years old; 11,500 (1.5%) were between 65 and 74 years old, and 1,500 (0.2%) were 75 or older (2016 data).
In the food and beverage industry, Spain ranks fifth in terms of people employed, trailing Germany, France, Poland and Italy, with 478,600 people. Of those, around 328,000 (68.5%) were between 25 and 49 years old; 125,100 (26.1%) were between 50 and 64 years old; 22,800 (4.8%) were between 15 and 24 years old, and 2,700 (0.6%) were between 65 and 74 years old.
In the European Union, there were 9.55 million people employed, of which 4.75 million (49.7% of the total) were between 25 and 49 years old and almost 3.32 million were between 50 and 64 years old. In the food and beverage industry, there were 5.06 million people, the majority of them (62.8%, 3.18 million) between 25 and 49 years old.
Around 79.6% of the total number of employed persons in Spain's primary sector (596,000), were men, and another 23.1% (178,600) were women. In the food industry, 63.4% of the total number of employed persons were men (303,600) and 36.6% (175,000) were women.
In the EU-28, men employed in the primary sector accounted for 66.5% of the total (6.35 million people), and women accounted for the remaining 33.5% (3.2 million). In the food and beverage industry, around 57.6% and almost 2.92 million employed persons were men, and 42.4% and around 2.15 million were women.
In the last year, Spain exported 30,119,519 tons of agri-food products to the EU, worth 34,521.12 million euros. These figures represent 6.85% of the EU-28 total in terms of volume (439.62 million tons) and 8.64% of the total value sold (around 399.510 billion euros) for all EU countries.
Spain stood out as an exporter to other EU countries in terms of value in the following segments: fruits and nuts (29.5% of the total), vegetables (27.2%), fats and oils (14.7%); vegetable juices and extracts (12.7%); fish, shellfish and mollusks (10.6%); meat and edible offal (9.8%); canned fruits and vegetables (9.6%), and canned meat and fish (8.7%).
In terms of volume, Spain exported the following to other EU countries: 34% of its fruit and nuts; 24.5% of total legumes and vegetables; 12.3% of its fish, seafood and mollusks; 10.5% of canned fruits and vegetables; 10.3% of its meat and edible offal, and 9.3% of vegetable juices and extracts.
As for non-EU countries, Spain exported 9,049,460 tons of agri-food products, 5.92% of the EU-28 total (almost 187.25 million tons), valued at 15,814.83 million euros, which accounts for 10.38% of the EU total (148.892 billion euros).
In terms of value, top exports to non-EU countries included fats and oil (32.4%); fruits and nuts (20.8%); canned fruit and vegetables (18.5%); meat and edible offal (17.7%); fish, seafood and mollusks (17.1%); legumes and vegetables (13.9%); vegetable juices and extracts (13.5%); live animals (13.3%), and canned meat and fish (12.1%).
In terms of volume, there was notable trade in the following products with non-EU countries: oilseeds (30.7% of the EU total); fats and oils (27.2%), fish, seafood and mollusks (23.3%); live animals (20%); meat and edible offal (16.1%); fruits and nuts (15.3%), canned fruit and vegetables (15%); and vegetable juices and extracts (14%).
In the last year, Spain imported close to 26 million tons of foods and beverages from other EU countries, worth 19,411.13 million euros. Those figures represent 5.82% of all agri-food transactions among EU countries (almost 446.94 million tons) and 4.92% of the total economic value (394.157 billion euros).
Spain is also a major importer of the following products in terms of value from other EU countries: grains (13.5% of the EU total); fish, shellfish and mollusks (9.7%); vegetable juices and extracts (7.7%); oilseeds (6%); sugar and candy (6%); coffee, tea and spices (5.7%); milled products (5.7%); grain-based products, breads and cakes (5.1%), and beverages (5%).
In terms of volume, the following imports from EU countries were notable: grains (16.1% of the EU total); fish, shellfish and mollusks (11.9%); vegetable juices and extracts (7.2%); sugars and candy (6.9%); milled products (6.8%); grain-based products, breads and cakes (5.5%); coffee, tea and spices (5.6%), and legumes and vegetables (5.2%).
Spain also imported 19.65 million tons of agri-food products from non-EU countries, worth almost 15.815 billion euros in 2016. This data represents 10.5% of the total volume of agri-food products imported (almost 187.25 million tons) by the EU from non-EU countries and 10.4% of the total (152.262 billion).
Imports in terms of value of the following products was notable: fish, shellfish and mollusks (19.1% of the EU total); grains (17.9%); fats and oils (17%); vegetable plaiting material (15,7%); oilseeds (14.5%); legumes and vegetables (12.3%); canned meat and fish (11.1%); food industry waste (10.9%), and fruits and nuts (10.4%).
In terms of volume, the most popular imported foods from non-EU countries were grains (23.3% of the EU total); fish, shellfish and mollusks (22.1%); fats and oils (18.4%); oilseeds (16.4%); vegetable juices and extracts (13.4%); legumes and vegetables (12.6%), canned meat and fish (12.3%); food industry waste (12.2%) and sugars and candy (11.3%).